Traffic Lights

The colours green, amber, and red are used as a traffic light metaphor to communicate and reflect the research findings pertaining to the effectiveness of the styles and the results of the norm group. 

The green styles—Inspirational, Coaching, and Participative—create positive leadership outcomes as described in the scientific leadership literature. 

The red styles—Authoritarian, Distrustful, and Withdrawn—might be part of a leader’s behavioural repertoire, but create less desirable leadership outcomes. 

The amber styles—Directive and Yielding—might be appropriate in some situations, but need to be used with caution and not overused.   

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